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Археологические исследования средневекового горна

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Археологические исследования средневекового горна

и сенсационная находка археологов

АУ АО «ГНПУ «Наследие»

на территории «Городища Сарай-Бату»

 

 

Вчера завершились раскопки научной археологической экспедиции Автономного учреждения Астраханской области «ГНПУ «Наследие» на территории Памятника археологии федерального значения «Городища Сарай-Бату», расположенного в окрестностях села Селитренное Харабалинского района  Астраханской области. Исследования проводились в рамках реализации Отраслевой целевой программы «Развитие культуры и сохранения культурного наследия Астраханской области на 2011-2013 гг.», при финансировании из бюджета Астраханской области под эгидой регионального министерства культуры.

Результатом работ стало практически полное завершение исследования одного из уникальных объектов городища – горна по обжигу квадратного золотоордынского кирпича – плинфы. 

Безымянный-2

 

 

Необходимо отметить, что обнаружение горна было не случайным  –  этому предшествовала кропотливая работа на протяжении ряда лет по изучению информационных источников и натурных полевых исследований. Ещё  в 2006 году, во время разведок в северо-восточной части городища, на одном из участков склона Змеиного бугра, было обнаружено большое количество бракованного и ошлакованного кирпича, а также ряд небольших характерных изменений рельефа: возвышенностей и западин  - углублений. Это дало возможность предположить наличие на этом месте ремесленного центра по производству и  обжигу кирпича.  Раскопки 2012 года подтвердили эти предположения: на небольшом раскопе (№ 43) был зафиксирован угол средневекового горна – специальной печи для обжига золотоордынской плинфы: часть стены и свода обжигательной камеры. 

Безымянный-3

 

 

В 2013 году раскоп был расширен для того, чтобы изучить древний объект целиком. Таким образом, был расчищен горн – сооружение для обжига кирпича.  По предварительным оценкам, время  его строительства и эксплуатации датируется второй половиной XIV века. Горн представлял собой довольно сложное архитектурное сооружение и имел 2 яруса: подземный – топочную камеру, куда загружалось топливо, и частично заглубленный верхний «этаж» - обжигательную камеру, в которую укладывались подготовленные к обжигу ещё сырые глиняные кирпичи квадратной формы размером 23*23*5/6 см. Сохранились остатки основания свода верхней камеры. По количеству упавших внутрь кирпичей свода можно предположить, что горн возвышался над поверхностью земли примерно на высоту роста человека.

 

Безымянный-7

 

Безымянный-6

 

Внешняя сторона горна, с которой происходила загрузка топлива, была оформлена в виде входа с тремя сырцовыми стенами. Интересно, что внутрь этой стены в древности был помещён небольшой красноглиняный гончарный кувшин, а также был найден кирпич с оттиском лапы собаки, вероятно, случайно  наступившей на еще сырой необоженный кирпич.

Безымянный-8

 

Безымянный-9

 

На территории городища до настоящего времени исследовано 2 аналогичных объекта, находящихся в другом районе памятника и имевших, к сожалению, гораздо худшую сохранность. Отличительной особенностью горна  со  Змеиного бугра является его хорошая сохранность, и именно то, что в нем обжигался кирпич. Дальнейшие исследования полученных сведений и материалов помогут прояснить многие моменты, связанные с технологией производства кирпича в те давние времена, строительства подобных сложных сооружений и т.д. Кроме того, обнаружение горна в северо-восточной части городища свидетельствует о том, что этот участок древнего мегаполиса был занят не только мавзолеями и некрополями, но и являлся своеобразной промышленной зоной.

Обнаружение и исследования горна по обжигу кирпича безусловно интересно в исследовательском и научном плане, но поистине сенсационной находкой стал клад серебряных монет золотоордынского времени,  обнаруженный на территории городища «Сарай-Бату», во время проведения мониторинга состояния этого памятника археологии.

Безымянный-13

 

11

 

Находка представляет собой набор монет средней сохранности в количестве около 500 штук, общим весом немногим более 500 грамм. Монеты предположительно датируются второй половиной XIV в. Большинство монет спеклись между собой и сильно корродированы. По всей видимости, они находились в кошельке, полностью истлевшем и найдены в том же порядке, как и были когда-то сложены. 

Безымянный-11

 

 

При подробнейшем обследовании окружающей территории, установлено, что находка имеет случайный характер и не связана с вероятностью нахождения в этом месте какого-либо  древнего сооружения.

Данный клад самым крупным кладом, обнаруженным за последние десятилетия раскопок на городище и вторым по величине за всю историю современных исследований этого памятника.

Сегодня, в канун Дня археолога, хочется поздравить всех коллег с наступающим праздником, пожелать здоровья, профессиональной удачи, ярких и интересных находок.

 


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