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Раскопки стоянки эпохи каменного века в Красноярском районе Астраханской области

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Раскопки стоянки эпохи каменного века

 в Красноярском районе Астраханской области

 

                                                                                                                                         Т.Ю. Гречкина

А.А. Выборнов

 

В полевом сезоне 2013 года археологическая экспедиция АУ АО «ГНПУ «Наследие» при активном участии студентов – археологов Поволжской  государственной социально-гуманитарной академии, возглавляемых профессором, доктором исторических наук А.А. Выборновым, приступила к исследованию неординарного памятника древности  - стоянки каменного века Байбек.

Последние исследования памятников каменного века не только в Астраханской области, но и в Нижнем Поволжье в целом проводились четверть века назад. Причина такого длительного перерыва заключалась в том, что обнаружить стоянки эпохи неолита – нового каменного века – крайне затруднительно. Большинство из них погребены барханами и найти их чрезвычайно сложно.  С другой стороны в результате разрушения барханов под воздействием природных факторов уничтожаются и культурные слои древних поселений. Можно смело сказать, что археологам из «Наследия» сопутствовала огромная удача – обнаруженная стоянка содержала мощный, хорошо сохранившийся культурный слой, с многочисленными следами человеческой деятельности.

Исследуемая стоянка находится в песках Красноярского района на разрушенном бархане. Изучаемая площадь составляет около 400 квадратных метров, на которых обнаружено большое количество каменных орудий древних людей – охотников и рыболовов. Вывод об их хозяйственной деятельности уже позволяют сделать найденные здесь кости сайги, кулана и других  животных, а так же рыб. Готовили еду древние обитатели стоянки Байбек на кострах в глиняных сосудах, которые были изготовлены из озерного ила. Это дает основание предполагать наличие в тот  период   вблизи памятника пресноводного озера. Почти все древние горшки украшены своеобразными узорами – орнаментом из прочерченных линий и ямчатых вдавлений. На внутренней стороне этих сосудов в результате приготовления пищи образовался нагар, который позволит определить точный возраст этого поселения. Но уже сейчас можно с уверенностью утверждать, что он будет составлять более  7,5 тыс. лет от сегодняшних дней.

Дело в том, что каменные орудия и орнамент на сосудах исследуемой стоянки очень похожи на материалы поселения Каиршак, расположенного на восток от Аксарайска, которые получили подтверждение столь древнего возраста в радиоуглеродных лабораториях мира.  Всё это придает особое значение открытому и исследуемому сейчас новому памятнику. По мнению специалистов, это древнейшее стоянка эпохи неолита не только в Нижнем Поволжье, но и в Европе в целом. Поэтому открытие стоянки Байбек имеет огромное научное значение. Жители Астраханской области могут по праву гордиться, что на их территории происходил переход к эпохе неолита в более раннее время, чем в Европе.

 Бархан, в пределах которого расположен памятник, продолжает разрушаться. Поэтому крайне необходимо в ближайшее время продолжить дальнейшее изучение этой уникальной стоянки, чтобы не потерять ценнейшую для евроазиатской науки историческую информацию.  

 

 

 

 

Иллюстрации:

  1. 1.Окружающий стоянку ландшафт.
  2. 2.Разметка раскопа перед началом работ.
  3. 3.Верхняя часть культурного слоя.
  4. 4.Северная часть стоянки.
  5. 5.Зольные пятна на расчищенном участке культурного слоя.
  6. 6.Кострище с разбитым глиняным сосудом и обгорелыми костями животных.
  7. 7.Кострище в северо-западном углу раскопа.
  8. 8.Участок культурного слоя с фрагментами керамики и костями животных.

9-11. Процесс расчистки культурного слоя стоянки.

 

Рисунок1

 

Рисунок3

 

Рисунок4

 

Рисунок5

 

 

Рисунок2

 

Рисунок6

 

Рисунок7

 

Рисунок8

 

Рисунок9


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Strict Standards: Non-static method ModDoyandexmetrikaHelper::getCode() should not be called statically in /home/nasledie/public_html/modules/mod_doyandexmetrika/mod_doyandexmetrika.php on line 16
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