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Раскопки ранненеолитической стоянки Байбек в 2017 году.

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                                          Раскопки ранненеолитической стоянки Байбек в 2017 году.

В полевом сезоне 2017  года археологическая экспедиция ГАУ АО «НПУ «Наследие» под руководством кандидата исторических наук Гречкиной Т.Ю. совместно со  студентами – археологами Поволжской  государственной социально-гуманитарной академии, возглавляемых доктором исторических наук А.А. Выборновым, продолжили исследование неординарного памятника древности  - стоянки каменного века Байбек.

Последние археологические работы на памятниках каменного века не только в Астраханской области, но и в Нижнем Поволжье в целом проводились четверть века назад. Причина такого длительного перерыва заключалась в том, что обнаружить стоянки эпохи неолита – нового каменного века – крайне затруднительно. Большинство из них погребены барханами и найти их чрезвычайно сложно.  С другой стороны в результате разрушения барханов под воздействием природных факторов уничтожаются и культурные слои древних поселений. Можно смело сказать, что археологам из «НПУ «Наследие» сопутствовала огромная удача – обнаруженная стоянка содержала мощный сохранившийся культурный слой с многочисленными следами человеческой деятельности.

Исследования полевого сезона 2017 года преподнесли ещё один сюрприз: под песчаным слоем, разбитым копытами животных и развеянным ветрами были  обнаружены остатки жилища эпохи неолита. Сооружение имело округлые очертания и было заглублено в  материк – твердый, плотный песок. Сохранившаяся глубина котлована жилища составляла немногим более метра, площадь его небольшая – немногим менее 16кв.м. По всей видимости, жилище представляло собой полуземлянку – т.е., возможно, над котлованом возвышалась шалашеобразная конструкция из ветвей и костей животных, перекрытая шкурами. Разместиться в таком жилище могло до десятка человек разного возраста. На полу жилища были обнаружены остатки очага, фрагменты керамических сосудов, каменные и костяные орудия труда. Можно предположить, что основной работой, которая совершалась под сводами жилища, было шитьё одежды  или обуви из шкур животных. Среди находок отмечено две целых костяных иглы–проколки и пять обломков костяных игол различного диаметра. Помимо этого обнаружены проколки из кремня, каменные и костяные орудия для обработки шкур и работы с ними. Конечно же, такое жилище было на стоянке не единственным. Более 10 тысяч каменных изделий и фрагменты более чем от 150 керамических сосудов позволяют предполагать довольно многочисленный коллектив охотников и рыболовов, обитавших на берегу древнего водоема.   Охотничьей добычей служили куланы, сайги, кабаны, благородные олени, тур. Пушные звери представлены  волком, лисицей, зайцем. Примечательно, что в культурах слоях стоянки были обнаружены кости собаки – первого домашнего животного на нашей территории, друга и помощника первобытного человека. Существенную часть пищевого рациона древних людей составляла и рыба (севрюга, стерлядь,  сазан,   лещ, судак, окунь,  щука и сом), которую вылавливали как в закрытых, так и в проточных водах. 

Как показал газохроматографический анализ нагара с поверхности керамических сосудов со стоянки Байбек, в них готовилась пища животного происхождения. Рыбу, по всей видимости, предпочитали готовить на углях, без использования глиняной посуды.

Не лишним будет напомнить, тот факт, что по различным органическим материалам для стоянки Байбек получено 29 радиоуглеродных дат. Более половины дат укладываются в хроноинтервал от 6100 до 5900 лет ВС, т.е. первобытное поселение существовало в период  с конца VII  до начала VI тысячелетия до н.э.

 

Бархан, в пределах которого расположен памятник, продолжает разрушаться. Поэтому крайне необходимо в ближайшее время продолжить дальнейшее изучение этой уникальной стоянки, чтобы не потерять ценнейшую для евроазиатской науки историческую информацию.  

 

 

 

 

Иллюстрации:

  1. 1.Окружающий стоянку ландшафт.7
  2. 2.Члены экспедиции в первобытном жилище.12

 

 


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